About the unlimited dimension of our finished Earth
The sense of the Earth like in deterritorialization
1. What we live it is a transformation of the support (поддержка) of the memory. We can say that internet or what we call the first globalization, the missed globalization with its dramas of destruction, is a new recourse (применение, рессора) for sifting [compulser, indexaliser in French] the memory in general and data [данные] in particular cases. The support of the archive is not only writing on wood, vellum, papyrus or at he end paper like for the first codex or notebook. There is no use like in the Ancient era to know all Iliad and Odysseus by heart (наизусть) like it was the role of scholars to the first university. The share of codex and calligraphic manuscripts was so few developed that the criticism was impossible. We wait in that case for Kant and its recovery of the St. Ambrose silent reading of the Bible. was so little development, few books read (Balzac wrote to Stendhal “you have at most 5000 readers”. Now the associations, university is the name-case of one of them ... Now associations are made and established through internet by interest and passion (по интернету, по интересам и по спратям) all around the world. The dynamic of the Оutside is here. In France there is a chiasm or a difference if you want between interiority/exteriority and inside/outside. If you want, the interiority is the Christian contemplation or the familialism and the exteriority is the mercantile consumerism while the Inside is all the memory and the Outside all the forces and activities which also write the code of this memory and make inscription as indices of their existing. What is go forward is what nowadays is opened to the meeting. It does not deal with crossbreeding and hybridization exclusively like pidginization or creolization [пиджинизация или креолизация] but with the insertion of the dynamism in the language itself. This is the use of kind of new metaphors or particularisms like postpositions. We will see that point in the second part as a particularity, I think, of the Russian language and its non-decadence (it is not a ontological language as Arab, Chinese and Creole). What proud western people castigates under the expression little negro speaking.
2. So I will not talk you about the actual restrictive globalization but about of the kind of deterritorialization, or if you prefer of the finished-unlimited dimension of the Earth and it consequence on each one’s lives, like yours and mine. It is not only a consequence of Galileo’s sentence : however its truns [speaking about the earth], but a consequence of an interaction which not spiritualist or materialist but a value we could called Sense of the Earth. Its frightening name could be overman (that’s not mean superman), just a new paradigm which not made of the man’s pleasures and the sufferings but of the creative tension between jubilation and dissatisfaction. It also let place for the ‘woman’ for a new becoming. I have no time to speak about artificial uterus. But there is there directly the connection with what we call the reproduction and the Gender.
3. The French philosophy of the seventies (French Touch or French Style) have made out of the coming numeric thought, with the third efficient revolution in communication after writing and printing : the era of the information. We can also call that globalization, more precisely for Deleuze it is deterritorialization. This stream is an inheritance of the Hellenistic school of Paris ( whose is one of the last representative is Patrice Loraux. This stream is linked with the thought of Nietzsche if we think about Barthes, Blanchot, Bataille as the second generation of French nietzschean readers. All this comes to a "geophilosophy" or more precisely the sense of the Earth we can find in the thought of Goethe when he went in Sicily and become one of the first sociologist ; we can also find in the thoughts of the French-Scotish geopoet Kenneth White, the French geographer Elisée Reclus, the Ukrainian geologist Verdnadsky from the bergsonian Edouard le Roy. That is to say a geophilosophy or geopoetry as calls it Kenneth White which is neither in the immanence nor in the transcendence but in a lay [secular] non nihilistic philosophy ; that is not Christian nor pagan. More than aphoristic fragments, this compilation or an integration is the first to score in hypertext form and break the passing of the classical era (always immanent with Deleuze and Badiou) the quantum era. This is a kind of ‘Schizo’ thought, a non axiomatic thought, more realistic than idealistic, but in the same time it is not a materialist . The question is not to know if the soul is spiritual or material. Nietzsche didn’t think that the matter and for his master Schopenhauer the matter is all what is in interaction with the spirit and moved by the spirit. All that is acted . Bu the light is also acted and light is not matter, so the classical conception reach its limits. The quantum revolution is here, because light have also an interaction with the atoms like. To come back to Nietzsche, Nietzsche was not materialist (as Tesla) and thought about special definition of eternity, blood and heart genius. I could develop these different terms if you ask him. But the blood comes with the sharing of the food not only in the couch, that’s why there are religious restrictions in order to not mix the blood with food as if the Ancient have a better knowledge of the physiology than us about nutrients. For the eternity it is just a while (moment) of delire, astonishment like ‘nooshock’, like feeling and experiencing that we are eternal (hic et nunc, здесь и сейчас or the health of the moment for Goethe). It is the scolie forty-three of the Spinoza’s Ethic.
Then, this matrix of equations :
- Transcendence = ancient = writing
- Immanence = classic = printing
- Convergence = quantic = internet.
5. We will develop this. The classic era led to the " dispersive specialty " and that is all that and more converging at the time of the internet. The era of convergence is not metaphysical or just with the finite - unlimited and the ethical dimension of ability or bad as we saw in the first part. people thought that our Earth in most trades and outside any metaphysical ( Inside, the vengeance kept in memory ) . Foucault said it was akin to a negative theology, what could be defined stating that it was not taken by a distance compared to classical metaphysics . It should be noted that the Internet facilitates access to the hypertext and the computer improves the production cross across the scattered activities of what is no longer a "world." There is an inherent impossibility to map the Internet, the network that covers our Earth's surface. Unpresentable [irreprésentable in French] that nothing unclear. Deleuze in his book, Foucault, claimed to have missed is that it fell de Nietzsche and has the potential of silicon that now allow you to read this message. Deleuze and Foucault have therefore called this thinking Outside and Overfold [Сверхсгиб]. To make it more precise and without showing the negative definition. Foucault see in restrictively as the negative theology but as he drawn the classical event in The words and the things, we can pick this out for our contemporary era. It is not materialism, it is not spiritualism, it is not an idealism, but more an obstinate realism with its collages. We can find it in the long lineage of da Vinci, Goethe, Nietzsche and Tesla.
The classical age is the one who square to higher power what it divided into classes and led to the emergence of subjectivity and ideology as the science of analyzing representations FCMC. Subjectivity only is a reaction to the Renaissance, in fact, to the creation of values that exceed the time taken up by Galileo and space created by Brunelleschi which are inventions of man for a given period as experience shows. The classical period follows the Renaissance and is the analysis of the representations of the Renaissance FCMC , probably we bath in the quantum era where the minimum of action is the minimum information. New technologies and the Internet are one of the parameters of this new paradigm , called finite-unlimited as specific to the Earth dimension. The greek call it anapeiton by difference with the apeiron. I will not here develop all the consequences of this new paradigm in all domains , you can observe it in your daily life. But to seize the difference between these two infinites ; anapeiton is what we can browse infinite inside borders while apeiron is open and without border, this is linked with aporia. To make the link with our era. It was at the end of nineteenth century and and the beginning of the twentieth when Nietzsche, Planck and Einstein invented the world without board, the finite-unlimited or the eternal return of the great reason. Different names for the same paradigm. This is because great quantum reason (complexity) which replaces the little classical reason known through the principle of knowledge that is sufficient reason or subjectivity. The first one stems from the convergence, as convergence through internet of the means of communication and knowledge, while the second stems from the coherence of a symbolic system of representations. Foucault, the first, actualizes the notion of Fold FcMC_352 undergoing it constitutes an abutment in opposition with the coming-soon thought FcMC_353. Certainly what Foucault already heard in the expression the coming-soon thought FcMC. What Deleuze and Guattari will see as a thought without axiomatic, a thought without principles as it prevails in the German idealism : less action principle and principle of individuation offer basis for the principle of sufficient reason [Принцип достаточного основания]. The fold is the name for the need of transcendence and the interiority it provokes or If you prefer when the finitude folds on itself FcMC_329. Deleuze well noted that there is a resonance between Merleau-Ponty and Foucault, between the visible and the invisible MPVI and Words and things FCMC, DzF_117-118 n.36.
« Have we to foresee the birth, still less the first glimmer down in the sky a day ahead, but we already can guess the thought - the thought that speaks since thousands of years without knowing what is speaking or even what it speaks – is going to regain ground as the whole and brighten again in the flash to be? Is not that what Nietzsche prepared when, within its language, he announced the death of God, but also the last man. In sum, he killed their both concepts » FcMC_317. For Foucault this moment appears within the structuralism. « The structuralism is not a new method ; il the waked up and worried consciousness of the modern knowledge » FcMC_221.
« l’essentiel c’est que la pensée soit à la fois savoir et modification de ce qu’elle sait, réflexion et transmutation du mode d’être de ce sur quoi elle réfléchit… » The thought « fait aussitôt bouger ce qu’elle touche : elle ne peut découvrir l’impensé, ou du moins aller dans sa direction, sans l’approcher aussitôt de soi », comme un Dedans plus proche que toute intériorité.
Revealing of the unthought [undenken for Heidegger], I mean this kind of asomption in the Sense, is called by the loud name event, « l’événement » FcMC_251-261, DzLS, event arrives on mainly on the thought directly and have no direct or loud consequence on inherited forms. It deals with the creative and reactive forces.
Let’s go forward now, nd see what paradigm,is for this new thought we could also find in the internet network, whose the principle f extension is neutrality, net neutrality.
Era of transformation
The philosophy reaches to its self-suppression after Hegel when he introduces the concept of aufhebung as overcoming by achievement. The alternative for Hegel to the transcendence was the Spinoza’s immanence, there, confessing his powerlessness; But existence is not a condition of being or becoming, even Nietzsche goes back on this, life is not a condition of accusation with categories, the Greek for categories come from the verb ‘categorein’. life is a conditioned by transformation and mutation, whose frequencies reach thresholds at a certain point.
We can say that the symbolic coherence based onto analysis is not metabolic convergence based on a synthesis of values. Aristotle gives the name of metabole to change ; metabole becomes a figure of repetition in the speech, which presumably would cross a threshold , a metabole is a gap between two voltages like between anabolism toward catabolism. We can call this regime of transformation or transmutation between destruction (catabolism) and synthesis (anabolism), metabolism, which by the exercise or the ability into an activity. Indeed, if the hyperboles in philosophy, like the quest of the truth, are dissatisfaction pointing to a nothingness which is added to reality, and if the symbol is are figures that capture the flow , we can say that anaboles are polarities in the existence like courage and fortune in Machiavelli or like ‘call’ and ‘pressure’ in the Bergsonian moral or envy and entail (хотят и влечет) or, at the end, jubilation and dissatisfaction in the sphere of creation. As for the substances which are anabolic steroids, anaboles increase any metabolism and allow their synthesis through anabolism (по анаболизму). I don’t try to lose my audience. I just try to show the tensions and the polarities inherent of the thought.. Just outside the metaphysic, in the mix of activity and rest, there are abilities which are also during the Renaissance what Vasari call in Italian ‘terribilità’ [substantive for Грозный] and which are now the capacities.
An example of Deterritorialization
The dynamic particle поand the Russian-speaking space.
I would to give interest to my Ukrainian audience. We can make a link between what some French philosopher or Nietzsche call the sense of the Earth or deterritorialization for making it more sophisticated. This is possible giving one example, in link with Russian language. It is about the particle по. The particle по is a recent use of Russian language. По doesn't only deal with the manner. With accusative case or locative case, it means also the dynamic contact. It means for example or we can also think about the song of the rock band DDT : Путин по стране.
All this deals with the issue of convergence of the language and pacing up and down, the land surveyor [землемера] or the man who does markup [razmetkor] which removes abutments of the thought [in French l'arpenteur ou le baliseur qui lève les butées de la pensée]. It is the personage of Zarathustra with its procession and Nietzsche himself, as Dionysus, Zarathustra’s father. Abutments are obstacles to the excitement of the thought by fixing so hollow too general concepts. We could say that Deleuze and Guattari belong to the Zarathustra’s procession. It was in the nineteenth century linked with the thought of fragments but now all is integrated and compiled. There no issue with corpuscles or waves, we speak about mobile particles [о мобильной частицах]
Some linguists call the particularity and the link between all the use of the particle по the dynamic contact like for the expressions провести рукой по столу [slip his hand on the table surface] and погладить по спине [pat on the back]. The most encountered case is with the dative desinence. I could give you some expression among many ones.
как по маслу
Comme sur des roulettes
à chacun selon ses œuvres
Dans la mesure où le « contact dynamique » se redéfinit aisément en termes de « trajectoire » ou de « parcours », la marque du datif est primordiale : le substantif introduit par po désigne un repère définissant la trajectoire d'un mouvement ou la « trajectoire » d'une relation prédicative.
Someone like lichaev also think the many nuances or difficulties in translation are rendered by the inscription of the space within the language. « Les espaces immenses se donnaient facilement à l’homme russe ». , according to Berdaev, « There would be a correspondence between the character of Russian ground, incommensurable, dépourvue de bornes, illimitée, et l’âme russe, entre la géographie physique et la géographie de l’âme. » « L’homme russe […] se sent impuissant à maîtriser ces espaces et à les
organiser. » L’appréhension du language semble ainsi lié . Berdaiev nous allons le voir pense surtout en termes d’apeiron à la difference de Lichaev ou Klioutchevski.
Many commentators have predicted the coming back of past methodes in Russia. Is there a fatality that condemns Russia and Ukraine to autoritary government ? It was the main thesis of Nicolas Berdiaev’s book, Sources et sens du communisme russe (1937). He claimed that, despite revolutions Russian state was equals at itself, en dépit des révolutions, l’État russe était toujours resté semblable à lui-même : moscovite principauty, l’empire petrovian empire and soviet union were the same in their principle, always despotic. In the introduction of this book, we can read : « Le peuple russe était victime de l’incommensurabilité de sa terre ». Already in a older book, le Destin de la Russie (1918), Berdaiev exposed and try to demonstrate that Russian space exerces on whom live into it a complex influence, imposing however the same regime of government. Nowadays, the question of the Russian empire is directly asked by the relation between Ukraine and Europe and the recent diplomatic discussions with Van Rampoen, one of the leader of European Union, watched with a sad eye from Moscow. The extension of the market put on stage directly the alternative between the oligarchy of a market based on supposed democratic elections and democracy based on “tirage au sort”. This question is important for the becoming of the Russian language, this one could have its own autonomy: Русский не российский. That’s not only means its own creolization and pidginization somewhere but also its dynamization which not exist on other languages. Ukrainian language could also be influenced by this in the lasting. Klioutchevski, for example, considers Ukrainian-Russian territory into its history issue as a principle of dynamism rather than stagnation. That’s what expresses certainly the recent thaw [оттепель] with the lot of fires the last summers beyond Oural or the conquest of Artict. Siberia will not be the place of Kolyma as Ukraine will not be the grenier à blé of Russia. Yes the “globalization” have as consequence not the urbanization but a new phenomenon of “repopulation” of migration by the earth, for the moment this are the willing of states that get advantages and incomes from external values. What we call Earth warming lets also the possibility of the democratization of Ukraine, that’s not mean a system of elections, which is always oligarchic as repeat Aristotle, Montesquieu and Rousseau. All this is a consequence not only of worldwide warming but over all of mechanization. That’s means how to obtain civil peace in another era than “panen et circensem” era in other way than with democratic political engagement. Because there I one important thing who create the value and by this way who influence the phenomenon of honor and acknowledgment [gratitude]. This decides for many interactions, because it is the key of power, sexuality and reproduction of the sameness.
The question of thaw [оттепель] is important si l’on tient compte que l’espace russe est constitué par bassins fluviaux plus que par fuseaux horaires. The thaw have got consequences more than aquatic, we can say, geopolitical. Klioutchevski sees a direct link with the nomadic character of Russian inhabitants, we can think about Kazars or zaporogue Cosacs [вольный] or errants pilgrims [странник] Klioutchevski Berdaiev , L’Idée russe, p. 8 «Les pèlerins errants refusent de se soumettre aux autorités». According to Klioutchevski « sans feu ni lieu, un homme “en déplacement
constant”, qui ne s’inscrit dans aucune société49 ».. Klioutchevski observes indeed that, in Russia, « la répartition géographique de la population suivait la direction des bassins hydrographiques et cette répartition déterminait le découpage politique du pays ». Le plateau de l’Alaoune « point nodal du réseau fluvial de notre pays », associé à la dépression centrale de Moscou, c’est-à-dire la région qui est entre l’Oka et la Haute-Volga, forme un « espace central », aussi bien « géographiquement » qu’« ethnographiquement », ainsi qu’un « noeud politique ». C’est là que s’est constitué l’État russe qui s’est ensuite étendu en suivant le cours des fleuves : « Ainsi le centre du territoire de l’État a été déterminé par l’amont des fleuves, la périphérie l’a été par leurs débouchés, la phase ultérieure de leur peuplement, par la direction des bassins fluviaux. ».
L’espace slave n’est pas immuable ans la maîtrise que les hommes en ont. La question des ressources sous le unpermanent permafrost est primordiale. The Earth is the Great Deterritorialized, at the end, the winner when men spoiled their energy wanting keeping themselves. In that case manhood is just a temporary skin illness which affords steel and aluminium to the geology of the Earth, that is what Verdnadski call noosphere, picking this name at Teillard de Chardin and Le Roy in 1936-1938 after is constrained errance in Ukraine. Bioshpere is an Ukrainian reterritorialization of the noosphere.
DELEUZE Gilles & GUATTARI Félix, Mille plateaux, Paris, Minuit, 1980.
FOUCAULT Michel, Les mots et les choses, Paris, Gallimard, 1966.
MERLEAU-PONTY Maurice (1959-1961), Le visible et l’invisible, Paris, Tel/Gallimard, 1979.
RECLUS Elysée, La Terre
SATPREM (1974), La Génèse du Surhomme, Paris, Buchet-Chastel, 1996.
SATPREM (1995), La Tragédie de la Terre, de Sophocle à Sri Aurobindo, Paris, Laffont, 1995.
WHITE Kenneth, Dialogue avec Deleuze, Paris, Isolato, 2007.
WHITE Kenneth (1978), La Figure du dehors, Bilio esssais/Livre de Poche, 1989.
COMTET R., 1993, Pour une approche systématiquement variationniste du russe d'aujourd'hui, in La revue russe, n° 5, p. 69-81.
GUIRAUD-WEBER M., Le préverbe po- en russe moderne, in La revue russe, n° 5, 1993, p. 57-68.
IOMDIN L. L., 1990, Русский предлог по : этюд к лексикографическому портрету, in Metody formalne w opisie języków słowiańskich, Białystok, Warszawa, p. 241-260.
JAKOBSON R., 1985, К общему учению о падеже, in Избранные работы, М., р. 133-175 (trad. russe de Beitrag zur allgemeinen Kasuslehre : Gesamtbedeutungen des russischen Kasus, Travaux du Cercle linguistique de Prague, VI, 1936).
SAKHNO Serguei, La préposition russe po : « contact dynamique », in Revue des études slaves, Tome 72, fascicule 1-2, 2000. pp. 213-229.
ZOLOTOVA G. A., Синтаксический словарь .-репертуар элементарных синтак сических единиц русского синтаксиса, M., 1988.
II.b. History and geopolitics
BERDAIEV Nicolas, Sources et sens du communisme russe (1937)
BERDAIEV Nicolas (1917), L’Idée russe. Le Destin de la Russie, Moscou, V. Chevtchouk, 2000.
KLIOUTCHEVSKI V., Cours d’histoire russe (Курс русской истории), IV,
JOUKOVSKY A., L'Ukraine dans les années 1917-1933 Aspect historique.
LIKHATCHEV Dmitri, Remarques sur ce qui est russe,1984.
ROABTCHOUK Mykola, De la Petite Russie à l'Ukraine.
SLEZSKI Yuri, Le siècle juif [about functionnal nomads and mercurianism, opposed to dionysism]
SOKOLOGORSKY Igor, La terre russe selon Nicolas Berdiaev ou les limites qu’impose l’espace illimité.
SOKOLOGORSKY Igor, La révolution (russe) selon Nicolas Berdiaev, Cahiers de l’émigration russe, Paris, Institut d’études slaves, 2003, no 7, p. 49-79.